Vol 64 No 2 (2019): Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society
Original Research Papers


Demet Dincel
Bezmialem Vakif University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacognosy
Serife Evrim Kepekci Tekkeli
Bezmialem Vakif University University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Analytical Chemistry
Cem Önal
Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Analytical Chemistry
Armağan Önal
Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Analytical Chemistry
Olcay Sagirli
Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Analytical Chemistry
Published July 25, 2019
  • CRTs,
  • High-performance Liquid Chromatography,
  • Food analyses,
  • Extraction
How to Cite
Dincel, D., Kepekci Tekkeli, S. E., Önal, C., Önal, A., & Sagirli, O. (2019). LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF CAROTENOIDS IN FOODS. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 64(2). Retrieved from


Current scientific studies indicate that carotenoids (CRTDs) are beneficial for maintaining health and lowering the risk of different pathologies. Considering the increasing role of carotenoids in healthcare, determination of carotenoid content of foods become important. Mostly, the analytical procedures that are used for this aim, are based on extraction techniques followed by different analytical procedures, especially high performance liquid chromatography. In this publication, a review of various analytical techniques developed for the determination of carotenoids in different food commodities starting from 2006 up to now, has been presented.

Abbrevations: CRT, Carotene; CRTD, Carotenoid; AA, Ascorbic acid; LT, Lutein; CRX, Cryptoxanthin; ZX, Zeaxanthin; HPLC; High Performance Liquid Chromatography; DAD, Diode Array Detector; PDA, Photodiode Array; UV, Ultraviyolet spectroscopy; LC-MS, Liquid Chromatograhy-Mass Spectroscopy; APCIMS, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry; DIDA, Diastereomeric Dilution Assay; HF-LPME, Hollow Fiber Liquid-phase Microextraction; UPLC, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography; GC-MS, Gas Chomatography-Mass Spectroscopy; ELSD, Evaporative Light Scattering Detection; TQMS, Triple-Quadrupole Mass Spectroscopy.



  1. Krinsky, N.I. and E.J.J.M.a.o.m. Johnson, Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease. 2005. 26(6): p. 459-516.
  2. Meléndez-Martínez, A.J., et al., Analysis of carotenoids in orange juice. 2007. 20(7): p. 638-649.
  3. Rao, A.V. and L.G.J.P.r. Rao, Carotenoids and human health. 2007. 55(3): p. 207-216.
  4. Gann, P.H., et al., Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. 1999. 59(6): p. 1225-1230.
  5. Seddon, J.M., et al., Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. 1994. 272(18): p. 1413-1420.
  6. IUPAC. IUPAC Carotenoid Nomenclature Rules. Accessed 2011 [cited 2011 24.06.2011]; Available from:
  7. Britton, G., S. Liaaen-Jensen, and H. Pfander, Carotenoids: handbook. 2012: Birkhäuser.
  8. Goodwn, T., The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids (Vol. 1: Plants). 1980, Chapman and Hall, London.
  9. Aust, O., et al., Analysis of lipophilic antioxidants in human serum and tissues: tocopherols and carotenoids. 2001. 936(1-2): p. 83-93.
  10. Barba, A.O., et al., Application of a UV–vis detection-HPLC method for a rapid determination of lycopene and β-carotene in vegetables. 2006. 95(2): p. 328-336.
  11. Hulshof, P.J., et al., Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in The Netherlands. 2006. 19(1): p. 67-75.
  12. Schlatterer, J., S. Maurer, and D.E.J.J.o.C.A. Breithaupt, Quantification of 3R, 3′ R-zeaxanthin in plant derived food by a diastereomeric dilution assay applying chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. 2006. 1137(2): p. 216-222.
  13. Kimura, M., et al., Screening and HPLC methods for carotenoids in sweetpotato, cassava and maize for plant breeding trials. 2007. 100(4): p. 1734-1746.
  14. Wang, Y.-C., Y.-C. Chuang, and Y.-H.J.F.c. Ku, Quantitation of bioactive compounds in citrus fruits cultivated in Taiwan. 2007. 102(4): p. 1163-1171.
  15. Marinova, D., F.J.J.o.F.C. Ribarova, and analysis, HPLC determination of carotenoids in Bulgarian berries. 2007. 20(5): p. 370-374.
  16. Gill, B.D. and H.E.J.I.d.j. Indyk, Liquid chromatographic method for the determination of lutein in milk and pediatric formulas. 2008. 18(9): p. 894-898.
  17. Dias, M.G., M.F.G. Camões, and L.J.F.C. Oliveira, Carotenoids in traditional Portuguese fruits and vegetables. 2009. 113(3): p. 808-815.
  18. Sérino, S., et al., HPLC Assay of Tomato Carotenoids: Validation of a Rapid Microextraction Technique. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2009. 57(19): p. 8753-8760.
  19. Aruna, G., B.S. Mamatha, and V. Baskaran, Lutein content of selected Indian vegetables and vegetable oils determined by HPLC. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 2009. 22(7): p. 632-636.
  20. Liu, S.-C., J.-T. Lin, and D.-J. Yang, Determination of cis- and trans- α- andβ-carotenoids in Taiwanese sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) harvested at various times. Food Chemistry, 2009. 116(3): p. 605-610.
  21. Dias, M.G., et al., Critical assessment of three high performance liquid chromatography analytical methods for food carotenoid quantification. 2010. 1217(21): p. 3494-3502.
  22. Huang, X.-Y., et al., An Improved LC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Determination of Lutein, β-Carotene and Lycopene in Tomato and Its Products. Chromatographia, 2010. 71(3): p. 331-334.
  23. Franke, S., et al., Analysis of carotenoids and vitamin E in selected oilseeds, press cakes and oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 2010. 112(10): p. 1122-1129.
  24. Gleize, B., et al., Simple and fast HPLC method for simultaneous determination of retinol, tocopherols, coenzyme Q10 and carotenoids in complex samples. Food Chemistry, 2012. 134(4): p. 2560-2564.
  25. Cucu, T., et al., A Simple and Fast HPLC Method to Determine Lycopene in Foods. Food Analytical Methods, 2012. 5(5): p. 1221-1228.
  26. Montesano, D., et al., A Simple and Selective Analytical Procedure for the Extraction and Quantification of Lutein from Tomato By-Products by HPLC–DAD. Food Analytical Methods, 2012. 5(4): p. 710-715.
  27. Xiao, Z., et al., Assessment of Vitamin and Carotenoid Concentrations of Emerging Food Products: Edible Microgreens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012. 60(31): p. 7644-7651.
  28. Simonovska, B., et al., Effects of extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic conditions on the determination of lutein in spinach. Journal of Chromatography A, 2013. 1276: p. 95-101.
  29. Ligor, M., et al., Study of RP HPLC Retention Behaviours in Analysis of Carotenoids. Chromatographia, 2014. 77(15): p. 1047-1057.
  30. Gupta, P., Y. Sreelakshmi, and R. Sharma, A rapid and sensitive method for determination of carotenoids in plant tissues by high performance liquid chromatography. Plant Methods, 2015. 11(1): p. 5.
  31. Górnaś, P., Unique variability of tocopherol composition in various seed oilsrecovered from by-products of apple industry: Rapid and simple determination of all four homologues (α, β, γ and δ) by RP-HPLC/FLD. Food Chemistry, 2015. 172: p. 129-134.
  32. Bhatnagar-Panwar, M., et al., Rapid, accurate and routine HPLC method for large-scale screening of pro-vitamin A carotenoids in oilseeds. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2015. 24(1): p. 84-92.
  33. Kola, O., et al., HPLC determination of carotenoid, organic acid, and sugar content in pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruit during the ripening period. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 2015. 51(1): p. 132-136.
  34. Wang, J., Y. Yang, and N. Wu, Determination of Carotenoids in Egg Yolk by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Vortex-Assisted Hollow Fiber Liquid-Phase Microextraction using Mixed Extraction Solvent. Journal of Chromatographic Science, 2016. 54(10): p. 1834-1840.
  35. Irakli, M., et al., Optimization and development of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of vitamin E and carotenoids in tomato fruits. 2016. 39(17): p. 3348-3356.
  36. Zheng, H., et al., Determination of sugars, organic acids, aroma components, and carotenoids in grapefruit pulps. Food Chemistry, 2016. 205: p. 112-121.
  37. Othman, R., et al., Determination of natural carotenoid pigments from freshwater green algae as potential halal food colorants. International Food Research Journal, (2017). 24,: p. 468-S471.
  38. Zeb, A., A simple, sensitive HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous determination of carotenoids, chlorophylls and α-tocopherol in leafy vegetables. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 2017. 11(3): p. 979-986.
  39. Vincent, U., F. Serano, and C. von Holst, Development and validation of a multi-analyte method for the regulatory control of carotenoids used as feed additives in fish and poultry feed. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2017. 34(8): p. 1285-1297.
  40. Bohoyo-Gil, D., et al., UHPLC as a suitable methodology for the analysis of carotenoids in food matrix. European Food Research and Technology, 2012. 235(6): p. 1055-1061.
  41. Giuffrida, D., et al., Application of HPLC–APCI–MS with a C-30 reversed phase column for the characterization of carotenoid esters in mandarin essential oil. 2006. 21(2): p. 319-323.
  42. Kurz, C., R. Carle, and A. Schieber, HPLC-DAD-MSn characterisation of carotenoids from apricots and pumpkins for the evaluation of fruit product authenticity. Food Chemistry, 2008. 110(2): p. 522-530.
  43. de Azevedo-Meleiro, C.H. and D.B. Rodriguez-Amaya, Qualitative and quantitative differences in the carotenoid composition of yellow and red peppers determined by HPLC-DAD-MS. 2009. 32(21): p. 3652-3658.
  44. Lucini, L., et al., Rapid determination of lycopene and β-carotene in tomato by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. 2012. 92(6): p. 1297-1303.
  45. Giuffrida, D., et al., Determination of the carotenoid profile in peach fruits, juice and jam. 2013. 68(1): p. 39-44.
  46. Bergantin, C., et al., HPLC-UV/Vis-APCI-MS/MS Determination of Major Carotenoids and Their Bioaccessibility from “Delica” (Cucurbita maxima) and “Violina” (Cucurbita moschata) Pumpkins as Food Traceability Markers. 2018. 23(11): p. 2791.
  47. Slavin, M. and L. Yu, A single extraction and HPLC procedure for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein in soybeans. Food Chemistry, 2012. 135(4): p. 2789-2795.

Copyright @2019 | Designed by: Open Journal Systems Chile Logo Open Journal Systems Chile Support OJS, training, DOI, Indexing, Hosting OJS

Code under GNU license: OJS PKP