JOURNAL OF CHILEAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY

Vol 61 No 4 (2016): Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society
Original Research Papers

DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC AND MERCURY IN THE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM OF THE FIVE CHILEAN RESERVOIRS

Sylvia V. Copaja
Departamento de Química Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile
Vesna. R. Nuñez
Departamento de Química Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile
David E. Véliz
Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas Nucleo Milenio de Ecología y Manejo Sustentable de Islas Oceánicas (ESMOI) Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de Chile
Published May 29, 2017
Keywords
  • Arsenic,
  • Mercury,
  • HG-AAS,
  • Sediments,
  • Fish,
  • Reservoirs
  • ...More
    Less

Abstract

Arsenic and mercury are among the metals and metalloids more toxic to the ecosystem. A quantification method by atomic absorption spectroscopy with hydride generator (AAS-HG) to determine total As and cold steam to determine Hg was optimized and validated in various matrices: superficial water, interstitial or pore water, sediments and in gill, liver and muscle of two fish species, a silverside (Basilichthys microlepidotus) and a catfish (Trichomycterus areolatus). The quality of the results was tested using certified reference materials (Water: ERM-CA615; Fish: DOLT-4; Sediment: BCR-320R). Samples were collected in the affluent and effluent of five reservoirs: Cogotí (31º00’S, 71º05’W); Corrales (31º54ºS, 70º54’W); La Paloma (30º44’S, 71º00’W); Rapel (34º08’S, 71º29’O); Recoleta (30º28’S, 71º06’W). ), in two campaigns during high flow (winter 2010) and low flow (summer 2011).

The results show a clear difference in the distribution of As and Hg in the different matrices; higher concentrations were found in the order sediment ˃ interstitial water ˃ surface water. Catfish showed higher accumulation of both metals, and metal concentrations generally decreased in the order liver > gill > muscle. No significant effect of reservoirs and zones was observed in As and Hg content. However, Arsenic (As) was found in higher concentration in the different matrices of the five reservoirs and zones. The concentrations of As and Hg in all samples did not exceed international standards in the case of sediment and the Chilean norm in the case of water, while in both fish species concentrations of As and Hg in muscle exceeded international standards.

References

  1. A. Maceda-Veiga, M. Monroy, A. de Sostoa, Ecotoxicol. Enriron. Saf. 76, 93, (2012).
  2. M. Ricard, H. Guasch, D. Barcdeló, R. Brix, H.M. Conceicão, A. Geizinger, J. Hydrol. 383, 52, (2010).
  3. N. Roig, J. Sierra, I. Moreno-Garrido, E. Nieto, E. Pérez, m. Schumacher, J. Blasco, Sci. Total Environ. 540, 287, (2016).
  4. K. Nemati, N.K.A. Bakar, M. R. Abas,. E. Sobhanzadeh, J. Hazard. Mater. 192, 402, (2011).
  5. J.Y. Yi, Z.F. Yang, S.H. Zhang, Environ. Pollut. 159, 2575, (2011).
  6. M.C. Newnan, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology. 2009. Third ed. CRC Press 9781420067040.
  7. A. Suárez-Serrano, C. Alcaraz, C. Ibañéz,. R. Trobajo, C. Barata, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 73, 280, (2010).
  8. U.P. Nasir, P. S. Harikumar, J. Environ. Prot. 2, 710, (2011).
  9. A.E. Ogbeibu, M.O. Omoigberale, I. M. Ezenwa, J.O. Eziza, J.O. Igwe, Nat. Environ. 2, 1, (2014).
  10. A.V. Filgueiras, I. Lavilla, C. Bendicho, Sci. Total Environ. 330, 115, (2004).
  11. M. Tuzen, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 1785, (2009).
  12. Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). Fish products standards and methods manual. Appendix 3 Canadian Guidelines for Chemical Contaminants and Toxins in fish and fish Products, 2014.
  13. N. L. Saint-Jaques, L. Parker, P. Brown, T. J. Dummer, Environ. Health Global Access. Sci. Sour, 13, (2014).
  14. E. Bustaffa, S. Stoccoro, F.Bianchi, L. Mugliore, Arch. Toxicol., 88, 1043, (2014).
  15. B. K. Mandal, K. T. Suzuki, Talanta, 58, 201, (2002).
  16. J. Narváez, P. Richter, M. I. Toral, J. Environ. Qual. 20, 522, (2007).
  17. L. Ascar, I. Ahumada, P. Richter, Chemosphere, 70, 1211, (2008).
  18. P. A. Cott, B. A. Zajdlik,. M.J. Palmer, M. D. McPherson, Journal of Greak Lakes Research, 42, 223, (2016).
  19. UNEP, Mercury: Time to act. United Nations Environment Programme, Geneva. 44 p. ISBN 978-92-807-3310-5. DTI/1623/GE. (2013).
  20. M.M. Cordy, I. Veiga, S. Salih, S. Al-Saadi, O. Console,. L. Garcia, P. Mesa, M. Velásquez-Lopéz, Roeser, A. Sci. Total Environ. 410, 154, (2011).
  21. J.J. Hinton, M.M. Veiga, A.T. Veiga, J. Claner Prod., 11, 99, (2003).
  22. H. Agah, M. Leemarkers, Y. Gao, S. M. Fatemi, M. M. Katal, W. Baeyens, Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 169, 203, (2010).
  23. M. Alina, A. Azrina, A. S. Mohd Yunus, S. Mohd Zakiuddin, H. Mohd Izuan,. R. Effendi, R. Muhammad Rizal, International Food Research Journal, 19, 135, (2012).
  24. D. L. Saunders, J. J. Meeuwing, A. C. J. Vincent, Conserv. Biol. 16, 30, (2002).
  25. F. J. Gottgens, J. E. Evans, J. Great Lakes Res., 2, 87, (2007).
  26. W. L. Graf, Water Resources Res., 35, 1305, (1999).
  27. M. Dynesius, C. Nilsson, C. Science, 266, 753, (1994).
  28. C. Nilsson, C. A. Reidy, M. Dynesius, C. Revenga, Science. 308, 405, (2005).
  29. K. W. Thorton, B. L. Kimmel, F. E. Payne, eds. Reservoir Limnology: Ecological perspectives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, New Jersey, 1990, pp 246-256.
  30. S. I. Simpson, G. E. Batley, A. A. S. Charlston, J. L. Dtauber, C. K. King, J. C. Chapman, R. V. Hyne, S. A. Gale, A. C. Roach, W. A. Maher, J. Sharyan. J, Handbook for Sediment Quality Assessment, (CSIRO Bangor, NSW), 2005, pp 9-19.
  31. Norma Chilena Oficial, NCh 411/6, Of. 98, Calidad del agua-Muestreo - Parte 6: Guía para el muestreo de ríos.
  32. EPA Method 3015A, Microwave assisted acid digestion of aqueous samples and extracts, (2007).
  33. EPA Method 3051, Microwave assisted acid digestion of sediments, sludges, soils, and oils, (1994).
  34. S. V.Copaja, V R. Nuñez, G. S. Muñoz, G. L.González, I. Vila, D. Véliz, J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 60, 2642, (2016).
  35. N. Roig, J. Sierra, I. Moreno-Garrido, E. Nieto, E Pérez Gallego, M. Schumacher, J. Blasco, Sc. Total Environ. 540, 287. (2016).
  36. G. R. Mataba, V. Verhaert, R. Blust, L. Bervoets, Sc. Total Environ. 547, 48. (2016).
  37. P.S. Rezende, P.A.S. Moura, W.A. Durão, Jr. Clésia, C. Nascente, C.C. Windmöller, L.M. Costa, J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 22, 910, (2011).
  38. Z. Zhang, Li Juying, Z. Mamat, Y. QingFu, Ecotoxicol. Environ Saf., 126, 94, (2016).
  39. S.V. Copaja, G.S. Muñoz, V.R. Nuñez, C. Pérez, I. Vila, D. Véliz. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 97 (1), 24, (2016).
  40. W. Hou, S. Sun, M. Wang, X. Li, N. Zhang, X. Xin, L. Sun, W. Li, R. Jia, Ecological Indicators, 61, 309, (2016).
  41. F. Pérez Sabino, B. Valladares Jovel, E. Hernández, B. Oliva, M. Cid, P. Jayes Reyes, Ciencia, Tecnología y Salud, 2, 37, (2015).
  42. J. Pizarro, P.M. Vergara, J.A. Rodríguez, A. M. Valenzuela, J. Hazardous Materials, 181, 747, (2010).
  43. B. V. González, J.J. Schultze, Ciencias Marinas, 32, 439, (2006).
  44. Kh. M. El-Moselhy, A. I. Othman, H. Abd. El-Azem, M.E.A. El-Metwally, Egipcian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1, 97 (2014).
  45. M. Stancheva, m.L. Makedonski, E. Petrova, Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 19, 30, 2013.
  46. J. Valdés, D. Román, M. Guiñéz, L. Rivera, J. Ávila, P. Cortés, A. Castillo, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 100, 544, (2015).
  47. E. Avigliano, N. F. Schenone, A. V. Volpedo, W. Goessler, A. Fernández Cirelli, Sc. Total Environ. 506-507, 102. (2015).
  48. Slejkovec, Z. AR. Byne, A.R. Smodis, B. Fresenius J. Anal Chem. 354, 592 (1996).
  49. Díaz, O. Encina, F. Chuecas, L. Becerra, J. Cabello, J. A. Figueroa, A. Muñoz. F. Rev Biol. Mar Aceanogr 36, 15 (2001).
  50. Viarengo, A.. Noti J.A. Comp Biocehm Physiol 104, 355 (1993).
  51. National Water Quality Management Strategy (NWQMS), Australian and new Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality. 2. Aquatic Ecosystems Rationale and Background Information, Cap 8. 2000.
  52. D. D. MacDonald, C. Ingersoll, T. Berger, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 39, 20, (2000).
  53. Norma Chilena Oficial, NCh 1333 Of. 1978, Requisitos de calidad del agua para diferentes usos.
  54. Commission of the European Communities (2006). Commission regulation (EC). N° 1881/ of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union. The commission of the European communities, Brussels, L364-5/L364-24.
  55. MAFF (1995). Monitoring and surveillance of non-radiactive contaminants in the aquatic environment and activities regulating the disposal of wastes at sea, 1993. Aquatic environment Monitoring report N° 44. Lowestoft: Directorate of Fisheries Research.
  56. FAO/WHO (2004). List of maximun levels recommended for contaminants by the Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius commision.
  57. ANZFA (1998). Food Standards code. Standard A12, Issue 37. Australia, New Zealand Food Authority, Australian government publishing service.
  58. Abdallah MAM., Egypt. Journal Mar Syst , 73, 114, (2008).

Copyright @2019 | Designed by: Open Journal Systems Chile Logo Open Journal Systems Chile Support OJS, training, DOI, Indexing, Hosting OJS

Code under GNU license: OJS PKP